Urology mainly focuses on the diseases related to the female and male urinary tracts along with male reproductive organs. Urology sums the management of surgical problems like correction of congenital abnormalities, cancers, stress incontinence correction, and non-surgical problems like benign prostatic hyperplasia and urinary tract infections.
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Symptoms of Urology Problems
- Difficulty in passing Urine
- Frequent urge to pass urine
- Pain during urination
- Urine leakage
- Pain in Lower Back
- Blood or other discharge in Urine
- Pain in Genitals
Basic Urology Tests
- Abdominal/Renal Ultrasound: A non-invasive imaging procedure that allows urologists to examine organs in the abdomen, which usually includes the kidneys and the bladder. During an abdominal ultrasound, a gel is applied on the skin and a hand-held device called a transducer is used to scan the abdomen.
- Computerized Tomography(CT) Scan: Computerized Tomography scanning uses imaging technology to create images of the inside of the body. CT scan is often used to examine kidney lesions or masses.
- Urine Culture: A urine culture test is performed to detect bacteria in your urine. This test finds and identifies the germs that cause a urinary tract infection(UTI). In the environment of your urinary tract, these bacteria may grow rapidly and develop into an infection.
- Urine Routine: The urine routine test is a combination of tests performed on urine and is one of the most frequently conducted tests. It comprises the chemical, physical, and microscopic examination of urine.
The various common urology procedures are:
- Bladder Neck Incision: This medical procedure is for men who possess a decreased urinary stream and problems passing urine because of a bladder neck stenosis/urethral stricture. Bladder Neck Incision is performed for a free flow of urine, removal of stones from the kidney and to cure serious urine infection.
- Endopyelotomy: Endopyelotomy is performed to treat the obstruction at the ureteropelvic junction. Obstruction of the ureteropelvic junction can be caused by congenital abnormalities, fibrous scarring, kidney stone, infection or surgical procedure. Endopyelotomy is a medical procedure used to treat the ureteropelvic junction either through antegrade endopyelotomy or retrograde endopyelotomy.
- Radical Nephrectomy: Nephrectomy is the surgical procedure for kidney removal. Renal Cell Carcinoma(RCC), damaged or non- functioning kidney, congenitally small kidney, etc can be some indications to opt for nephrectomy. Nephrectomy can either be radical or partial. Radical nephrectomy is for patients diagnosed with RCC in stages I, II and III.
- Bladder Biopsy: Bladder biopsy is a diagnostic surgical procedure where cells or tissues are removed from the bladder to be tested in a lab. A bladder biopsy is performed after tests show that there may be a problem with the prostate gland. Bladder cancer can be best detected with a bladder biopsy.
- Cystoscopy: Cystoscopy is a test for measuring the health of urethra and bladder. This involves tube insertion into the urethra through the opening at the end of the penis. Cystoscopy may be done to find the cause of urinary system problems including blood in urine, pain while urinating, incontinence, frequent urinary tract infections, and blockages in the urinary tract.
- Radical Prostatectomy: A prostatectomy is the surgical removal of all/part of the prostate gland due to abnormalities such as the formation of tumor and enlargement mainly in the urethra. Radical prostatectomy is a medical procedure for the removal of the prostate gland and tissues surrounding it which usually includes the seminal vesicles and some nearby lymph nodes.
- Penectomy: Penectomy is a medical procedure of removal of the penis through surgery for medical purposes. The major reason for the partial or total removal of the penis is penile cancer. The two types of Penectomy include Partial Penectomy and Total Penectomy.
- Transurethral Resection of the Prostate(TURP): Transurethral Resection of the Prostate(TURP) is a urological procedure for the treatment of Benign Prostatic Hyperplasia(BPH). It is performed by visualizing the prostate through the urethra and removing the tissue by sharp dissection or electrocautery.
- Optical Internal Urethrotomy: It is used to treat urethral strictures which is a medical condition where the urethra becomes narrow. In this surgical procedure, the body tissues in the urethra are removed, to release it.
- Prostate Biopsy: A biopsy is a medical procedure to remove a small piece of tissue/cells from the body so that it can be examined under a microscope. In a prostate biopsy, prostate gland tissue is taken out with a biopsy needle during surgery. The tissue is then checked if there are any cancerous/other abnormal cells in the prostate gland.
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