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ORTHOPEDICS

Orthopedics

Orthopedics is a medical specialty concerned with the diagnosis, correction, prevention, and treatment of patients with skeletal deformities including disorders of the bones, joints, muscles, ligaments, tendons, nerves, and skin. Surgical, as well as nonsurgical means, are used by orthopedic surgeons for treating musculoskeletal trauma, spine diseases, degenerative diseases, infections, tumors, and congenital disorders.

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Basic Orthopedic Symptoms

  • Swelling
  • Tenderness
  • Inability to move the affected part without pain
  • Bone sticking out at an abnormal angle
  • Bone sticking out of the skin
  • Numbness
  • Inability to lift or rotate the injured part
  • Inability to put any weight for leg injuries
  • Severe pain when breathing in for broken ribs
  • Snapping or cracking noise at the time of the fall/accident

Basic Tests to Diagnose Orthopedic Conditions

  • X-ray: X-rays are used for detecting fractures and joint dislocations and might be recommended if the doctor suspects damage to a bone or a joint from other conditions such as arthritis or osteonecrosis.
  • Computed Tomography(CT) Scan: A CT scan of the bones is performed to assess bones, soft tissues, and joints for damage, lesions, fractures, or other abnormalities, particularly when other examinations, such as X-rays or physical examination are not conclusive.
  • Magnetic Resonance Imaging(MRI) Scan: An MRI is used to evaluate bones, joints, and soft tissues such as cartilage, muscles, and tendons for injuries or certain other conditions, such as tumors, inflammatory disease, congenital abnormalities, osteonecrosis, bone marrow disease, and herniation or degeneration of discs of the spinal cord. Joint deterioration resulting from arthritis can also be monitored using MRI.
  • Ultrasound-Musculoskeletal: Ultrasound imaging uses sound waves for producing images of muscles, tendons, ligaments, nerves, and joints. It helps diagnose sprains, strains, tears, trapped nerves, arthritis, and other musculoskeletal conditions.

Types of Orthopedic Surgeries

  • Carpal Tunnel Syndrome: Carpal tunnel syndrome occurs when pressure is put on the median nerve since it passes through the wrist under the carpal tunnel ligament. This results in pins and needles and numbness in fingers. Surgery is required sometimes to ease pressure on the nerve which is done by splitting the carpal tunnel ligament under local anesthesia.
  • Joint replacements: Joint replacement is known for restoring freedom of movement and eliminating the pain due to degenerated and diseased joints. There are various kinds of joint replacement surgeries:
    • Total hip replacement: Hip replacement surgery is a procedure in which a doctor surgically removes and replaces a painful hip joint with an artificial joint made from metal and plastic components.
    • Total knee replacement: A total knee replacement is a surgical procedure where the diseased knee joint is replaced with artificial material. Knee replacement surgery is performed for patients whose knee joints have been damaged either by progressive arthritis, trauma, or other rare destructive diseases of the joint.
    • Total shoulder replacement: Total shoulder replacement is a surgical procedure for restoring comfort and function to the arthritic shoulder. The arthritic ball is replaced by a smooth metal ball fixed to the arm bone by a stem that fits within it.
    • Total elbow replacement: In total elbow replacement, the damaged parts of the humerus and ulna are replaced with artificial components. The artificial elbow joint comprises a plastic hinge and metal with two metal stems.
    • Partial Knee Replacement: A partial knee replacement is a surgery to replace a single part of a damaged knee. It can replace either the (medial) part, the lateral part, or the kneecap part of the knee. The surgery to replace the whole knee joint is called total knee replacement.
    • Wrist replacement: Wrist replacement is a surgical procedure where the damaged joint is replaced with an artificial joint: a prosthesis. The aim is to create a stable, pain-free joint with a functional range of movement when conservative treatments have failed.
    • Ankle joint replacement: Ankle replacement is a surgical procedure to replace the damaged articular surfaces of the human ankle joint with prosthetic components.
  • Arthroscopic Surgery: Keyhole surgery is a surgical procedure used by orthopedists to visualize, diagnose, and treat problems inside a joint. A small incision is made in the skin and then a pencil-sized instrument having a small lens and a lighting system is inserted to magnify and illuminate the structures inside the joint.
    • Ankle Arthrodesis: Ankle fusion also known as ankle arthrodesis is a type of surgery to fuse the bones of your ankle into one piece. This surgery is usually performed to treat arthritis in the ankle.
    • Knee Arthroscopy: Knee arthroscopy is a medical procedure to diagnose and treat problems in the knee joint. During the procedure, the surgeon makes a very small incision and inserts an arthroscope into your knee. This will allow them to view the inside of the joint on a screen.
    • Meniscectomy: Meniscectomy is a medical condition associated with a torn meniscus in the knee. For meniscus repair, the surgery involves operating the torn meniscus and removing it to eliminate the severe pain that the patient is suffering.

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