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Neurology

NEURO & BRAIN

Neuro & Brain

Neurology is primarily concerned with the diagnosis, prevention, and treatment of disorders affecting any part of the nervous system that includes the Brain, peripheral nerves, spinal cord, and extra-cranial cerebrovascular system. Brain surgery is done when a person is diagnosed with cerebral aneurysms, brain tumors, and brain hemorrhage or when a person has weak blood vessels in the brain.

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Symptoms of Neurological Disorders

Common symptoms of neurological problems include:

  • Partial/Complete Paralysis
  • Muscle Weakness 
  • Partial/Complete Loss of Sensation
  • Seizures
  • Headaches
  • Blurry vision
  • Fatigue
  • Numbness in the legs or arms
  • Changes in coordination or balance
  • Weakness
  • Slurred speech
  • Tremors

Basic Tests To Diagnose Neurological Disorders

  • CT Scan of Brain: A Computed Tomography of the brain is a noninvasive diagnostic imaging procedure that uses special X-Ray measurements to produce horizontal or axial images of the brain. CT scan of the brain provides more detailed information about brain tissue and brain structures than standard X-rays of the head.
  • MRI Test for Brain: Magnetic Resonance Imaging(MRI) of the brain is a diagnostic test that uses a magnetic field and radio waves to produce detailed images of the brain and the brain stem. This helps to identify problems in the brain and the brain stem.
  • Electroencephalogram(EEG): An Electroencephalogram(EEG) is a medical test to find problems related to the electrical activity of the brain while tracking and recording brain wave patterns. Small metal discs with thin wires are placed on the scalp which then sends signals to a computer to record the results.
  • Nerve Conduction Velocity(NCV) Test:A Nerve Conduction Velocity(NCV) test evaluates the nerve damage and dysfunction. Also referred to as a Nerve Conduction Study, this medical procedure measures how quickly electrical signals travel through your peripheral nerves.
  • Electromyography(EMG): Electromyography(EMG) measures the electrical activity in response to a nerve’s stimulation of the muscle. This test helps to detect neuromuscular abnormalities. During this procedure, one or more small needles called electrodes are inserted through the skin into the muscle.

Neurological and Brain Surgeries & Treatments

Neurological and Brain Treatments & Surgeries performed by Neurosurgeons include:

  • Brain Tumor Surgery: This surgical procedure is done for brain tumors that can be removed without causing severe damage. A large number of non-cancerous tumors can only be removed by surgery. However, cancerous tumors may require additional treatment apart from chemotherapy or radiation therapy. Surgery is performed to remove the tumor thereby, reducing its symptoms to improve the quality of life.
  • Brain Aneurysm Surgery: Basically, there are two surgical techniques to treat the condition of brain aneurysms- Endovascular Coiling and Neurosurgical Clipping. Neurosurgical clipping is a surgery performed through craniotomy and then placing a tiny clip across the neck of the aneurysm to prevent it from bleeding. Endovascular coiling is a minimally invasive procedure in which a catheter is used to reach the aneurysm in the brain.
  • Arteriovenous Malformation(AVM) Surgery: An Arteriovenous Malformation(AVM) is an abnormal tangle of blood vessels in the brain or spinal cord where one or more arteries are directly connected to one or more veins. Surgical resection is performed to remove the tangled blood vessels using craniotomy to reach the brain. The abnormal arteries and veins are removed, once the surgeon has access to the AVM.
  • Strokes: A stroke is considered a medical emergency where the blood supply to different parts of the brain is interrupted. Immediate medical treatment is required in this condition. The strokes can be prevented as well as treated. The aim of treatment is to prevent further neurologic deterioration and prevent a recurrence. 
  • Parskinson’s Disease: The nervous system disorder affecting the movement of a person that develops slowly is known as Parkinson’s disease.  Tremors are regarded as a significant symptom of this disease and may result in slowing/stiffness of movement. Other symptoms include speech changes, impaired posture, slowed movement, and rigid muscles. Even though Parkinson’s disease has no cure, medicines, surgical treatment, and other therapies can often relieve some of the symptoms. 
  • Alzheimer’s disease: Alzheimer’s disease is a progressive disorder causing brain cells to degenerate and die. Alzheimer’s disease is a common cause of dementia that causes continuous decline in thinking, behavioral and social skills. This disrupts a person’s ability to function independently.
  • Multiple Sclerosis: Multiple Sclerosis is an autoimmune disorder that affects the central nervous system including the brain, spinal cord, and optic nerves. This leads to a wide range of symptoms including fatigue, numbness in legs/feet, difficulty in balancing, difficulty with vision, and muscle weakness.
  • Epilepsy: Epilepsy is a neurological disorder where the brain activity becomes abnormal, causing seizures or abnormal behavior. The signs and symptoms of seizures may include temporary confusion, uncontrollable jerking movements of the arms and legs, a staring spell, loss of consciousness, and psychic symptoms such as fear & anxiety.
  • Spinal Tumor Surgery: A spinal tumor is the development of an abnormal mass of tissue in or around the spinal cord and/or spinal column. These tumors affect the functioning of vertebrae, nerve roots, blood vessels, meninges, and spinal cord. Spinal tumors can be benign(non-cancerous) or malignant(cancerous)S

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